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David Hovey Sr., FAIA, the Artist

Art and architecture are united through a connection of aesthetics. Both emerge from a creative vision to engage the senses and express their unique identity. As we continue to explore the rich stories detailing the career of David Hovey Sr., FAIA, in the newly published catalogue raisonné, it’s a pleasure to unearth the vision behind some of his most ambitious works. 

Alex Marshall, in his thoughtful essay entitled “Brilliant Journey,” reflects on the dimension of David Hovey Sr., FAIA,’s career as an artist:

“In front of Optima Signature (2017) on Illinois Street near Michigan Avenue in Chicago and at Camelview Village in Scottsdale are objects composed of smooth, brightly colored steel plates with cutouts in whimsical patterns of swoops, sharp points, and angles. They contrast with the buildings, which have horizontal and vertical lines.

“The objects are works of art, sculptures designed by Hovey Sr. He has taken his love of exploring the possibilities of materials and the creation of spaces, and channeled them to aesthetic ends.

“‘Architecture is about function, as well as aesthetics,’ Hovey Sr. said. ‘While sculpture is really just about aesthetics. You don’t have that functional component. You can do whatever you want. I like that.

“‘Because of my years of working with it as an architect, I feel I’ve developed a special understanding of steel, its material structure, and what can be done with it visually. I’m trying to do something that can’t be done in wood, canvas, or plastic. So I use very thin steel plates, and join them together so that they become very three-dimensional, and create curves and voids and form. It doesn’t really matter if they are a foot high or fifteen feet high.

“Although he has been exploring the idea for years, Hovey Sr.’s practice as a sculptor took a leap forward when he decided to put one of his own pieces in front of Camelview Village in Scottsdale. The municipal government had required Optima to spend $400,000 on a piece of art in front of the building. Hovey Sr. decided to do it himself, using all the money to fabricate, transport, and install the art.

Kiwi at Optima Signature, Chicago, IL

“The process is this: Hovey Sr. makes sketches of his designs, and then gives them to a fabrication shop. The shop produces digital versions of Hovey Sr.’s sketches, and then uses these computerized drawings to make the three-dimensional pieces composed of different planes of steel. The expensive laser cutting machines, some about the size of a small car, draw as a child might draw on a piece of paper, except with a laser that burns precise holes and lines into the plates of metal, to produce what Hovey has set down.

“‘I wanted to take advantage of the most recent technology, so the sculpture I was doing wouldn’t look like something from the nineteenth or twentieth century; it would look like something from the twenty-first century.

“Hovey Sr.’s sculptures also reflect his own temperament. ‘I’m one of those people who like to be active so if I have an hour or two free, I would rather be doing sculpture. It’s my way of relaxing.”

Stay tuned for more inspiring and enlightening excerpts from David Hovey Sr., FAIA. To learn more about the stunning sculptures created by David Hovey Sr., FAIA, that live in Optima communities, explore our website here.

Curated Furniture at Optima Lakeview: the Bertoia Side Chair

Our love of mid-century classic furniture can be found throughout all of the Optima communities. And with our soft spot for iconic seating, it’s no surprise that the famed Bertoia Side Chair is a staple in many of our amenity spaces. Let’s take a closer look.

About Harry Bertoia
Born in San Lorenzo, Italy in 1915, Bertoia built an international reputation as an artist, sound art sculptor and modern furniture designer. After leaving his home at the age of 15 to join his older brother Oreste in Detroit, Harry embarked on a career that centered on the exploration of modernist ideas and ideals, often in collaboration with some of the greatest thinkers and visionaries of that era.

In 1936, a one-year scholarship to the School of the Detroit Society of Arts and Crafts allowed Harry to study painting and drawing. He entered and placed in many local art competitions, said to be the most awarded student up until that time. The following year, another scholarship took him to the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. Working among some of the most famous artists and designers of the modernist age, including Eero and Eliel Saarinen, Charles and Roy Eames and Florence Knoll, Bertoia’s creativity and mastery of materials flourished.

Bertoia as Furniture Designer
Bertoia was first exposed to furniture design at Cranbrook when Eero Saarinen and Charles Eames entered and won the Organic Furniture Design Competition sponsored by the Museum of Modern Art. In fact, Bertoia developed his initial chair design ideas while working with Charles Eames and others in California in the late 1940s, which he later incorporated into his work.

Bertoia eventually left Eames to join the Point Loma Naval Electronics Laboratory. While there, he learned how to study the human body to design control panels and knobs that focused on comfort for reach and grip. This sensitivity to ergonomics contributed significantly to Bertoia’s fascination with designing well-fitting practical chairs.

In 1950, at the invitation of former classmate Florence Knoll and her husband Hans, Harry moved to eastern Pennsylvania to work at their emergent furniture company Knoll, Inc. Florence had seen Harry’s work at Cranbrook, heard he had left Eames, and knew that he had enormous promise as a furniture designer. The Knolls offered him the opportunity to design what he wished with full credit and complete recognition of his work, which was their policy with all designers.

About the Bertoia Side Chair
Once on staff at Knoll, Bertoia was asked to develop hospital furniture, but he preferred to work with healthy bodies. He gravitated towards metal as his material of choice, and he continued to experiment with it until he landed on the concept of the wire grid, which could be shaped at will. with it until arising at the wire grid concept that could be shaped at will to conform to the human body. This was a radical departure from the use of rigid wood, which was characteristic of the late 1940s and early 1950s furniture. He not only created the airy welded metal design of the chairs, but also devised the production molds used for mass manufacture. 

Knoll produced the first Bertoia chairs in 1952 — an amazing collection of furniture that reflects a profoundly beautiful study in space, form and function. As with other designers of his time, including Mies van der Rohe, Bertoia found infinite elegance in an industrial material, elevating it beyond its utility into a work of art. 

Today, the Bertoia collection remains one of the great achievements of mid-century modern furniture design by one of the master sculptors of the last century and a proud part of the Knoll heritage.

A Guide to Frank Lloyd Wright’s Studios Part 2: Taliesin West

While Frank Lloyd Wright’s Taliesin was the first of his residences and studios, Taliesin West, a monumental exploration of Wright’s unique approach to organic architecture, is arguably Wright’s most intimate creation. 

Following the completion of Taliesin, where Wright lived and worked for nearly 30 years, the famed architect became interested in relocating to a warmer climate. In 1935, he purchased 495 acres of stunning Sonoran Desert below McDowell Mountain just outside of Scottsdale. Taliesin West brought extraordinary life to Arizona’s then-desolate desert, and, after nearly nine decades, the complex continues to advance Wright’s legacy and his iconic designs. 

Similar to Taliesin, Taliesin West drew great inspiration from its brilliant surroundings. While working with a group of apprentices throughout the construction process, Wright took advantage of the unique materials found in the surrounding landscapes. Using a mixture of local rocks, cement and desert sand, Wright and his team created, often by hand, what many describe as “desert masonry” to help structure the campus.

The complex is situated with various unique architectural elements that accentuate its deep-rooted connection to nature. Translucent canvas (now plastic) once covered the roof of many rooms within Taliesin West, creating an illusory linkage to the warm outdoors. Other features include lofty redwood beams accenting the building’s cold structure. 

Throughout Wright’s life, the campus served as both a winter home and a desert studio. While Taliesin West never experienced any misfortunes, unlike its sibling complex Taliesin, the space did experience numerous renovations throughout the period from 1937 to 1959 when Wright lived and worked there. Some of the renovations included the addition of a drafting studio, dining hall,  workshop, three theaters, Wright’s office and living quarters, and the residences for his apprentices and staff. Various decorative walkways, gardens, terraces, and pools acted as both luxuries to the property and connections to each larger structure. 

Taliesin West interior
The Garden Room found inside of Taliesin West, Courtesy of Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation

Today,Taliesin West serves as the headquarters for the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation and, until 2020, was the winter home for The School of Architecture at Taliesin. The inspiring architecture was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 1974, was recognized as a U.S. National Historic Landmark in 1982 and was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2019.

Found just a short drive from the heart of Scottsdale, Taliesin West offers the perfect trip for anyone seeking to explore one of Arizona’s most exciting works of architecture. The complex hosts a variety of events and programs throughout the year and presents visitors with numerous tours that can be discovered on their website here.  

2021: A Year in Review

As we kick off 2022, we want to take a moment to reflect on how we’ve continued to grow, learn and serve others over the past 12 months. Here are just a few highlights:

Awards

We were honored to receive a total of 9 awards this year! Our design and architecture were recognized with the AIA Chicago Firm of the Year Award, AIA Chicago Design Excellence Awards – Distinguished Building Award (Arizona Courtyard House), and Chicago Athenaeum’s American Architecture Award twice (Optima Kierland and Optima Sonoran Village). 

Art Baril, our Maintenance Manager at Optima Sonoran Village was awarded the Gold Facilities and Maintenance Manager of the Year by Multi-Housing News at their 2021 MNH Excellence Awards. 

Our culture and values were also acknowledged in 2021 with the AZCentral Top Companies 2021 Award and Best Places to Work in Chicago for the second year in a row. 

To see the full 2021 lineup, visit our awards page here

Projects and Properties

This was a significant year for development, construction, leasing and more at Optima. In Chicago, we continued construction at Optima Lakeview, which is nearly complete. The project is the first multifamily development to achieve the WiredScore Home Gold Certification in North America. We also returned to our roots on the North Shore where we broke ground on our newest development, Optima Verdana, and plan to introduce our signature vertical landscaping system to the Midwest.

In Arizona, our leasing team worked tirelessly to lease up our new 7140 tower at Optima Kierland Apartments, and our second condo building, 7180 Optima Kierland, closed out. We also broke ground on the fifth and final residential tower at Optima Kierland, 7190 Optima Kierland which will open in 2023.

Culture

Throughout 2021 our culture at Optima continued to thrive through richly rewarding avenues of kinship and connection. We celebrated the autumn season with our second annual pumpkin carving and costume contest, observed Diwali, the festival of lights, and shared laughs and stories while celebrating our successful year at company outings at Topgolf and a Chicago Cubs Game. We also enjoyed the return of in-person happy hours during the year.

Our team continued to embrace and internalize our shared values more than ever. We gave back to the communities we live in by volunteering at the Skokie Lagoons on the Chicago North Shore, picking up trash at the boat launch. We also took the opportunity to acknowledge eight Optima employees with our Core Values Award for their exceptional representation of our beliefs throughout their work. 

We can’t thank our leadership, team members and Optima communities enough for making 2021 one to remember. Heading into 2022, we are excited to continue innovating and achieving great things together.

Team Member Spotlight: Rebecca Grossman

As we reflect on our values and character as a company, we always come back to the same truth: our team members represent the best of Optima. Recently, we interviewed Rebecca Grossman, Optima Kierland’s Leasing Manager, about her journey to Optima Kierland, how residents and staff have helped create an extended family for her and the impact she has had on Optima.

Tell us a bit about your background and the role you play at Optima.

Before Optima, I worked in retail management for 15 years – 9 of which were in Philadelphia – before I moved to Scottsdale. When the pandemic  began, I realized retail would never be the same. I struggled to figure out what could be next in my career, and where I could take my experience and interest in customer service to a higher level. As part of my search, I found an opening on LinkedIn at the Optima Kierland apartments. Coincidentally, I live directly across the street from the properties! I did my research and realized that everything Optima stands for aligns perfectly with my values and who I am as a person.

I was hired as a Leasing Consultant in March 2020. Just based on who I am and how I work, it was natural for me to take on leadership roles working with our leasing and resident teams, and was promoted three months later to my current position as Leasing Manager. I now manage two leasing consultants and work very closely with our two resident coordinators and nearly 600 residents daily. 

Tell us a bit about the Optima Way and what it means to the Optima Kierland residents and staff.

Something I love in life is building relationships and connections, so the fact that I get to come to work every day and do just that…well, it doesn’t feel like work at all! And what I have learned since joining the Optima team is that my values around relationships and connections is identical to those of the company. In fact, it’s captured in a companywide philosophy called “the Optima Way.” 

The Optima Way is so successful here at Kierland because our team shows a level of empathy for residents and one another that is unmatched. We make sure both residents and staff at Kierland always feel valued, seen and heard. We also sincerely believe that our residents are extended family to us. We care about everyone and take the time to be thoughtful and considerate during all of our interactions. 

Optima has a distinct set of values that really differentiates it from other companies. Which values really speak to the work you do at Optima?

One of our core values at Optima is there is a solution for every problem, and I feel like our team has embraced that value and demonstrates it every day. I try to lead by example and show my team how critical our work and values are so they can strive to that same level of passion – and they do. 

A line of golfers get ready to tee off on a course
Optima Kierland Apartments Golf Outing at the Westin Kierland

Can you give us a few examples of the great programming your team has been doing of late?

One of our upcoming events is an exciting food tour across the city. The company we’re working with will be taking our residents — by party bus —  to four different restaurants where they’ll be served a cocktail and appetizer at each one. We love to think out of the box for activities, and this is so different from anything I’ve ever seen an apartment community do!

We’ve done flower arrangement courses, fitness classes, cookouts and golf tournaments. We take the time to understand our residents’ interests so we can tailor our programs around them. And because our events align with the things our residents care about, each event that we host helps build that community that we strive to create here at Optima Kierland. 

Can you give us a few examples of ways in which your team has gone “above and beyond” for your residents in ways that really make a difference?

We have a resident who has lived with us for a long time, and her dogs mean the whole world to her. Recently, one of them passed away after a long illness. We knew it would be incredibly stressful for our resident to retrieve her dog’s ashes, so we simply took care of it for her.  I feel moments like these reflect the Optima Way; we act out of genuine kindness, generosity and reciprocity all the time — and not because it’s part of our job description. 

In another case, a couple moved to Optima Kierland from Philadelphia, and it was an enormous undertaking for them. I helped organize many details of the move, from getting their car shipped here to having their apartment custom painted. We also organized a surprise birthday party for a resident’s daughter and surprised residents who were honeymooning in Mexico with champagne at their hotel. Doing these small things is simply practicing the Optima Way, and it all adds up to create a sense of trust and family that we all share.  

What are some things you’ve learned during your time at Optima?

I thought that after a successful 15-year career in retail I knew everything there was to know about customer service and building relationships. It turns out that I didn’t know the half of it. I have become a stronger person here. I thought I knew my limits, and then I learned to push farther. We’re always striving for better, and sometimes it’s been intimidating, but I feel like my team and I are the best version of ourselves as a result.

Ellison Keomaka’s Art at 7140 Optima Kierland

Pairing unique, tasteful works of art with our buildings is an integral part of design expression with Optima projects. We recently sat down with artist Ellison Keomaka, to discuss the process and inspiration for his most recent contributions to 7140 Optima Kierland. – you can read more about our history with Keomaka here

While creating commissioned artwork for 7180 Optima Kierland last year, Keomaka was simultaneously working on pieces for 7140. “Because I was working on these two bodies of work at the same time, much of the inspiration for the 7140 artwork flowed from what I was creating for 7180,” says Keomaka. 

Armed with an understanding of the building’s design, materiality and sense of space, Keomaka decided to explore a grand palette, bold textures, and adventurous methods — “a playground of color and an exciting experiment,” explains Keomaka. 

Letters From Home at 7140 Optima Kierland
Letters From Home at 7140 Optima Kierland

Partially inspired by his own experience in the military, Letters From Home is an “assemblage work” as Keomaka explains, “that speaks to the emotional stories of soldiers receiving letters from home.” The assemblage includes images from issues of Life Magazine that date back to World War II, with two blocks of bright blue and red that meet to form a shape that resembles the back of an envelope.

Some Kind of Sunset at 7140 Optima Kierland
Some Kind of Sunset at 7140 Optima Kierland

Keomaka’s personal favorite, Some Kind of Sunset captures the idea of the endless shifts in the sun’s position. Working over a period of two months, Keomaka used pearlescent and fluorescent paints to animate the surface of the canvas, allowing the colors to adapt and change with changes in the natural light striking the surface throughout the day.

Desert Dance at 7140 Optima Kierland
Desert Dance at 7140 Optima Kierland

As the title suggests, Keomaka created this piece as a kind of dance that responded to music he was listening to while painting. “Working with music is a big part of my artistic practice,” Keomaka states. “For this work, I was listening to a playlist that included Kanye West, Coldplay and movie soundtracks, and I used my brushstrokes and color choices to respond to the eclectic mix,” he shares.

The Space Between at 7140 Optima Kierland
The Space Between at 7140 Optima Kierland

Comprised of vertical bands of bright colors, The Space Between may seem like it is one of the more simple works of art created by Keomaka for 7140 Optima Kierland. However, color and texture are precisely what make this piece stand out. Keomaka mixed primary colors to create unique hues that live in the spaces between yellow, blue and red, while using a squeegee tool to control the flow and texture of the paint on the canvas to add to the sense of flatness and precision.

Keomaka’s bold and experimental artwork echoes the creative brilliance and ingenuity that we care deeply about at Optima. His ability to translate these artistic gestures into works that activate the public spaces at 7140 Optima Kierland add immeasurably to the beauty and warmth of the interior environment — for residents as well as for all who pass through the building.

Chicago Skyscraper Spotlight: Rookery Building

Highly regarded as one of the most historically significant buildings in Chicago, it’s only natural that we would include the Rookery Building in our ongoing Chicago skyscraper spotlight series. So what does it take for a building to earn such an esteemed title – especially in a city with a skyline marked by its architectural diversity and richness? Let’s take a look.

Big Shoulders Indeed

The Rookery Building was completed in 1888 by architects Daniel Burnham and his partner John Wellborn Root, under their firm Burnham and Root. Overall, the structure is considered one of their masterpiece buildings and was even once the location of their offices. Standing at twelve stories high (188 feet total), it’s also considered the oldest standing high-rise in Chicago.

The Rookery Building rose from the ashes of the Great Chicago Fire. Burnham and Root were part of the Chicago School of Architects who worked to rebuild the city during that time, utilizing modern industrial techniques combined with traditional techniques and design, resulting in a truly unique product.

The unique name, too, comes with a story: only a water tank was left standing from the original structure after the fire. A temporary structure was built around this tank, and was nicknamed the “rookery” – in part because of the pigeons and crows that perched on its exterior, but also in part because of the crooked politicians it housed within.

Photo of the light court lobby designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
The light court lobby designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.

The Rookery Building in the Modern Era

Burnham and Root weren’t the only big names to call the Rookery Building home. At one point, Frank Lloyd Wright once held offices there as well. In fact, Wright even remodeled the building’s lobby in 1905. Just a few decades ago, from 1982 to 1992, a massive renovation project was completed to restore the lobby to this original Wright design once again.

These days, the building is home to tenants such as US Bank, Brooks Brothers, Perkins Eastman and Interactive Brokers Group. Both the Frank Lloyd Wright organization and the Chicago Architectural Society offer tours inside the building, so that lovers of great architecture today can continue to appreciate its history, story, and gorgeous features.

Inside Our Team: Accounting

The backbone of our success at Optima is the way our team seamlessly communicates, collaborates and comes together. Back in February, we got to know our property management team, and today, we’ll dive into what makes our accounting team so fantastic. 

With accounting operating as “the language of business,” we rely on our accounting team to communicate crucial financial information both internally and with our stakeholders. Their ability to communicate through numbers, data and insights is crucial when we seek to build out strategic partnerships, make high-level decisions and continue operating seamlessly, efficiently and smartly. 

We couldn’t do what we do without the help of our accounting team — and they couldn’t do what they do without an internal accounting team that celebrates its own culture and values. Here’s what they had to say about working on the accounting team

When asked what makes the team work, Chrissy Battistella, Optima’s Controller, says “Compatible personalities and great leadership.” Aurelia Mustafa, a Property Accountant, second that, saying it’s “a balance blend of personalities and communication.”

As for what they love most about working on the accounting team? Battistella says, “The people. Each team member contributes equally to the team, we all lend a hand to one another when needed. There is always an open line of communication between all the team members and each with their coach.” Szilvia Springer, a Senior Staff Accountant, adds, “Everyone has clear responsibilities, there is no micromanagement. We know what and when to get done.”

With the team being so tight-knit, it’s only natural that they learn from one another on a daily basis. Battistella says what she learned from her coworkers is “patience and teamwork. It takes a lot as a coach to effectively manage my time helping each team member, but they are all patient and respectful of my time as I am of theirs.” Mustafa chimes in, sharing, “They are a sense of support though we work on entirely different projects.  Our weekly meetings allow our team to express ourselves speaking on projects we are working on and that sometimes lead to personal conversations in an organic way where we find ourselves exchanging opinions/experiences.”

With our holistic business model that encompasses architecture, development, general contracting, sales/brokerage, asset/property management, and shared services, each of our talented teams are part of what makes Optima great. Think you would be a good fit on the Optima team? Check out our current open positions to inquire about joining our team.

Staying Creative During COVID-19

During COVID-19, we’re spending more time at home than we’re maybe used to. For some, this means extra time spent playing with — and managing — the kids, for others, any extra time offers a much needed pause to rejuvenate, refresh and stay well. No matter the unique situation, we’re all coming together and responding to the situation in thoughtful, creative ways. Here are just a few ways our team is staying creative (and sane) during COVID-19:

Staying creative during COVID with handmade cards

Making New Traditions

I’ve been taking out my markers to make a few bubble letter posters for car parade birthday greetings and if I can’t get there in the car, then I’ll just show my artwork in the Zoom birthday party. 

Each day I play either online canasta or online mah jongg with my friends.   Canasta has become part of my nighttime ritual, a way to catch up on everyone’s day while playing a hand on-line and we talk on Discord at the same time so we feel like we’re real gamers like our kids!”

-Jennifer Oppenheimer, Senior Vice President

 

Painting… Nonstop

“I don’t know how creative I’ve been, does painting almost every square inch of our house count as creative? I’m working on our kitchen cabinets right now.”

-Shelby Vukic, Office Manager & Executive Assistant

 

Slowing Down to Stargaze

“What I think I’ve enjoyed the most is slowing down, and not having to go go go all the time. Being able to relax outside in the evening, take a dip in the pool, soak in the hot tub and see the AZ stars. I have been enjoying my mornings watering all our potted plants, herbs and flowers in the back. I’ve been cooking a lot, we are eating better, and with fresher ingredients too. Saving money on not eating out as much as we were doing!”

-Jamie Springer, Regional Manager

 

Becoming Adventurers, Gardeners and Ornithologists

“Big things have happened in my house during shelter-in-place. My son became potty trained and learned how to ride a scooter. We play with the bouncy house in the backyard every day that the weather allows and go on a ton of nature walks. We live on a ravine so we go out looking for deer, foxes, fish, and birds. The kids have a blast. We spend a lot of time looking through binoculars these days – we have an owl living in a tree in our backyard as well as woodpeckers, robins and cardinals.  The other day we spotted a scarlet tanager.  We’ve become a house of ornithologists!  We also planted some seeds in our garden – so far just arugula and basil but we plan to plant the rest next weekend.”

-Ali Burnham, Marketing Director

 

From our homes to yours, we hope these stories provide some inspiration and help you find new ways to stay creative during COVID-19, too!

 

Giving Back: Feed My Starving Children

As part of our commitment to building strong communities, we often turn our efforts outward and partner with local businesses and nonprofits that share our beliefs and passions. Recently, our teams in Arizona and Illinois both rallied and collaboratively supported a cause together, volunteering with Feed My Starving Children. 

Feed My Starving Children (FMSC) is a nonprofit dedicated to eradicating child hunger in both body and spirit. Their organization believes that hope starts with food, and coordinates with food distribution partners that stay with communities for the long haul, empowering them to move from relief to development. By providing proper nourishment and nutrition to children in need, FMSC is unlocking their full potential, helping children grow and thrive. 

On Thursday, February 13, thirteen Optima team members from offices in Arizona and Illinois volunteered at their respective locations. Over the course of the day, we assembled food donations and packed 164 boxes bound for communities in need, providing 35,424 meals. These meals will be enough to feed 96 children for an entire year. In addition to dedicating our time, our team made a donation that will feed three families for one year.

Our team members cherished the experience. Heather Williams, Community Manager at Optima Kierland Center in Arizona said, “Volunteering with Feed My Starving Children was an eye-opening experience. It’s heartbreaking to think about the number of children and adults that face starvation as a reality. The work this organization is doing to help feed families across the globe is inspiring and I am really grateful to have had the opportunity to contribute in a small way.”

Tarryn deKock from the People Experience team in Glencoe agreed, “It was such a rewarding, fun, feel good day spent with my team members, giving back to those less fortunate. I felt so grateful for what we have and how lucky we are!”

To learn more about Feed My Starving Children and how you can help end childhood hunger, visit their website here

person name goes here

Maintenance Supervisor

Glencoe, IL





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